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Monday, June 22, 2020

Hypoxia




Hypoxia, by definition, is the lack of sufficient oxygen in the blood, tissues, and/or cells to maintain normal physiological function. Many different factors can cause this state of oxygen deficiency. Breathing air at reduced barometric pressure, malfunctioning oxygen equipment at altitude, drowning, pneumonia, extremes of environmental temperatures, and carbon monoxide are just a few of the causes of oxygen deficiency in the body that results in hypoxia. The most common causes of hypoxia in aviation are: flying, non-pressurized aircraft above 10,000 ft without supplemental oxygen, rapid decompression during flight, pressurization system malfunction, or oxygen system malfunction.


Hypoxia is actually divided into four types: hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, stagnant hypoxia, and histotoxic hypoxia. No matter what the cause or type of hypoxia you experience, the symptoms and effects on your flying skills are basically the same. One factor that makes hypoxia dangerous is its insidious onset; your signs and symptoms may develop so gradually that they are well established before you recognize them. Hypoxia is painless, and the signs and symptoms vary from person to person.


**Hypoxic hypoxia
Hypoxic Hypoxia is the most common type of hypoxia for pilots. At high altitudes, oxygen content in air remains the same, but the molecules are further apart and thus exert less pressure. As a result, when you breathe in air, the decreased pressure makes it more difficult for the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
Hypoxic hypoxia is usually anticipated and combated by pressurized cabins or oxygen mask requirements, but situations of slow decompression, system malfunctions, or simple lack of awareness at altitudes where 100% oxygen is recommended but not required can result in hypoxic hypoxia.


**Hypemic hypoxia
Hypem **Hypoxic hypoxia


Hypoxic Hypoxia is the most common type of hypoxia for pilots. At high altitudes, oxygen content in air remains the same, but the molecules are further apart and thus exert less pressure. As a result, when you breathe in air, the decreased pressure makes it more difficult for the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
Hypoxic hypoxia is usually anticipated and combated by pressurized cabins or oxygen mask requirements, but situations of slow decompression, system malfunctions, or simple lack of awareness at altitudes where 100% oxygen is recommended but not required can result in hypoxic hypoxia.


ic Hypoxia occurs when the blood is unable to carry oxygen as efficiently as it should. Even if the oxygen supply is adequate, hypoxia will still occur. This condition is uncommon in aviation, but may happen due to a medical condition such as anemia, or if carbon monoxide is inhaled due to a system malfunction or other event.
**Stagnant hypoxia
Stagnant Hypoxia also involves the blood, occurring when blood flow is insufficient to carry oxygen where it needs to go. Some medical conditions could cause this, but pilots are more likely to experience this if they regularly perform aerial acrobatics, as G-forces could result in blood pooling.
**Histotoxic hypoxia
Histotoxic Hypoxia is caused when cell absorption of oxygen cannot occur due to the presence of alcohol or narcotics. This is but one of the many reasons to avoid alcohol consumption for a significant period of time before a flight.
Refer below sources for more understanding.
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