What are the main functions of Turbine Engine? - اسأل الطيار ask pilot

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الاثنين، 22 يونيو 2020

What are the main functions of Turbine Engine?

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The turbine is at the heart of any jet engine with its primary task being to drive the compressor. As described previously without the compressor no mechanical work would be done on the fluid prior combustion and the thrust produced would only be a function of the chemical energy stored within the fuel.

The hot combustion gases that enter the turbine directly after the combustion chamber are expanded across a series of vanes and stators, known as a stage, similar to the compressor. In the case of a turbine the fluid is expanded to extract useful work and therefore the pressure of the fluid falls across each turbine stage.

Since the fluid is not working against an adverse (rising) pressure gradient boundary layer separation over the aerofoils of the turbine blades is not as critical such that turbine blades can have much more agressive angles of attack with respect to the flow. Consequently, the pressure ratio across a turbine stage can be much higher than across a compressor stage and it quite common for a single turbine stage to drive six or seven compressor stages. The amount of power that can be extracted from a turbine stage is tremendous and a single turbine blade (not the full rotor of blades) may contribute up to 250 bhp. The biggest driver behind the progress in turbine technology since Whittle’s first engine in the 1930’s has been the development of advanced cooling methods and the use of high-temperature alloys.

Similar to compressors axial turbines seen on most modern jet airliners are more efficient than their radial counterparts at higher flow rates. However, radial turbines are still being used on modern aircraft for auxiliary power units.

The hot gases that exist the combustion chamber and impinge on the first row of nozzle guide vanes that turn the flow into the rotating turbine blades at the optimal angle to extract the most amount of work. Each stage of vanes and blades expands the flow thereby resulting in a drop in enthalpy (total amount of energy in the combustion gases) and a transfer of work from the fluid to the turbine. For simple jet engines the overall performance of the engine is more effectively enhanced by developing the compressor stages. However for large by-pass turbofan engines turbine aerodynamic design is crucial.

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