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Sunday, October 11, 2020

Aircraft Braking System - Landing Gear

Aircraft Braking System - Landing Gear
Aircraft Braking System - Landing Gear


The braking control system facilitates the brake's actions, of course, but also helps reduce the aircraft's braking distance and increase payload capacity.

Safran Landing Systems has developed the full brake-by-wire system, totally electrically-controlled. To design this system, we integrated the required redundancy and functions, in line with the types of missions to be performed by the aircraft.

Other aspects taken into account include a sensor that regulates the braking according to the pilot's directions, an anti-skid system, auto-braking and other functions to increase passenger comfort, the choice of a hydraulic or electric energy source, etc.

**Types and Construction of Aircraft Brakes

Modern aircraft typically use disc brakes. The disc rotates with the turning wheel assembly while a stationary caliper resists the rotation by causing friction against the disc when the brakes are applied. The size, weight, and landing speed of the aircraft influence the design and complexity of the disc brake system. Single, dual, and multiple disc brakes are common types of brakes.

1) Single Disc Brakes
Small, light aircraft typically achieve effective braking using a single disc keyed or bolted to each wheel. As the wheel turns, so does the disc. Braking is accomplished by applying friction to both sides of the disc from a non-rotating caliper bolted to the landing gear axle flange. Pistons in the caliper housing under hydraulic pressure force wearable brake pads or linings against the disc when the brakes are applied. Hydraulic master cylinders connected to the rudder pedals supply the pressure when the upper halves of the rudder pedals are pressed.

2) Floating Disc Brakes-
The caliper straddles the disc. It has three cylinders bored through the housing, but on other brakes this number may vary. Each cylinder accepts an actuating piston assembly comprised mainly of a piston, a return spring, and an automatic adjusting pin. Each brake assembly has six brake linings or pucks. Three are located on the ends of the pistons, which are in the outboard side of the caliper. They are designed to move in and out with the pistons and apply pressure to the outboard side of the disc. Three more linings are located opposite of these pucks on the inboard side of the caliper.

These linings are stationary, the brake disc is keyed to the wheel. It is free to move laterally in the key slots. This is known as a floating disk. When the brakes are applied, the pistons move out from the outboard cylinders and their pucks contact the disc. The result is a fairly even amount of friction applied to each side of the disc and thus, the rotating motion is slowed. When brake pressure is released, the return spring in each piston assembly forces the piston back away from the disc The spring provides a preset clearance between each puck and the disc. The self adjusting feature of the brake maintains the same clearance, regardless of the amount of wear on the brake pucks.

The adjusting pin on the back of each piston moves with the piston through a frictional pin grip. When brake pressure is relieved, the force of the return spring is sufficient to move the piston back away from the brake disc, but not enough to move the adjusting pin held by the friction of the pin grip. The piston stops when it contacts the head of the adjusting pin. Thus, regardless of the amount of wear, the same travel of the piston is required to apply the brake. The stem of the pin protruding through the cylinder head serves as a wear indicator. The manufacturer’s maintenance information states the minimum length of the pin that needs to be protruding for the brakes to be considered airworthy.

3) Fixed-Disc Brakes
Even pressure must be applied to both sides of the brake disc to generate the required friction and obtain consistent wear properties from the brake linings. The floating disc accomplishes this as described above. It can also be accomplished by bolting the disc rigidly to the wheel and allowing the brake caliper and linings to float laterally when pressure is applied. This is the design of a common fixed-disc brake used on light aircraft.

The fixed-disk, floating-caliper design allows the brake caliper and linings to adjust position in relationship to the disc. Linings are riveted to the pressure plate and backplate. Two anchor bolts that pass through the pressure plate are secured to the cylinder assembly. The other ends of the bolts are free to slide in and out of bushings in the torque plate, which is bolted to the axle flange.

The cylinder assembly is bolted to the backplate to secure the assembly around the disc. When pressure is applied, the caliper and linings center on the disc via the sliding action of the anchor bolts in the torque plate bushings. This provides equal pressure to both sides of the disc to slow its rotation. A unique feature of the Cleveland brake is that the linings can be replaced without removing the wheel. Unbolting the cylinder assembly from the backplate allows the anchor bolts to slide out of the torque plate bushings. The entire caliper assembly is then free and provides access to all of the components.

4) Dual-Disc Brakes
Dual-disc brakes are used on aircraft where a single disc on each wheel does not supply sufficient braking friction. Two discs are keyed to the wheel instead of one. A center carrier is located between the two discs. It contains linings on each side that contact each of the discs when the brakes are applied.

5) Multiple-Disc Brakes-
Large, heavy aircraft require the use of multiple-disc brakes. Multiple-disc brakes are heavy duty brakes designed forvuse with power brake control valves or power boost master v-cylinders, which is discussed later in this chapter. The brake assembly consists of an extended bearing carrier similar to a torque tube type unit that bolts to the axle flange. It supports the various brake parts, including an annular cylinder and piston, a series of steel discs alternating with copper or bronze-plated discs, a backplate, and a backplate retainer. The steel stators are keyed to the bearing carrier, and the copper or bronze plated rotors are keyed to the rotating wheel. Hydraulic pressure applied to the piston causes the entire stack of stators and rotors to be compressed. This creates enormous friction and heat and slows the rotation of the wheel.

6) Segmented Rotor-Disc Brakes
The large amount of heat generated while slowing the rotation of the wheels on large and high performance aircraft is problematic. To better dissipate this heat, segmented rotor disc brakes have been developed. Segmented rotor-disc brakes are multiple-disc brakes but of more modern design than the type discussed earlier.

There are many variations. Most feature numerous elements that aid in the control and dissipation of heat. Segmented rotor-disc brakes are heavy-duty brakes especially adapted for use with the high pressure hydraulic systems of power brake systems. Braking is accomplished by means of several sets of stationary, high friction type brake linings that make contact with rotating segments. The rotors are constructed with slots or in sections with space between them, which helps dissipate heat and give the brake its name.

Segmented rotor multiple-disc brakes are the standard brake used on high performance and air carrier aircraft. The description of a segmented rotor brake is very similar to the multiple-disc type brake previously described. The brake assembly consists of a carrier, a piston and piston cup seal, a pressure plate, an auxiliary stator plate, rotor segments, stator plates, automatic adjusters, and a backing plate. The carrier assembly, or brake housing with torque tube, is the basic unit of the segmented rotor brake.

7) Carbon Brakes
The segmented multiple-disc brake has given many years of reliable service to the aviation industry. It has evolved through time in an effort to make it lightweight and to dissipate the frictional heat of braking in a quick, safe manner. The latest iteration of the multiple-disc brake is the carbon-disc brake. It is currently found on high performance and air carrier aircraft. Carbon brakes are so named because carbon fiber materials are used to construct the brake rotors. Carbon brakes are approximately forty percent lighter than conventional brakes. On a large transport category aircraft, this alone can save several hundred pounds in aircraft weight. The carbon fiber discs are noticeably thicker than sintered steel rotors but are extremely light. They are able to withstand temperatures fifty percent higher than steel component brakes. The maximum designed operating temperature is limited by the ability of adjacent components to withstand the high temperature.

Carbon brakes have been shown to withstand two to three times the heat of a steel brake in non aircraft applications. Carbon rotors also dissipate heat faster than steel rotors. A carbon rotor maintains its strength and dimensions at high temperatures.

8) Brake Actuating Systems
The various brake assemblies, described in the previous section, all use hydraulic power to operate. Different means of delivering the required hydraulic fluid pressure to brake assemblies are discussed in this section. There are three basic actuating systems:

1. An independent system not part of the aircraft main hydraulic system.
2. A booster system that uses the aircraft hydraulic system intermittently when needed.
3. A power brake system that only uses the aircraft main hydraulic system(s) as a source of pressure.

9) Parking Brake
The parking brake system function is a combined operation. The brakes are applied with the rudder pedals and a ratcheting system holds them in place when the parking brake lever on the flight deck is pulled. At the same time, a shut-off valve is closed in the common return line from the brakes to the hydraulic system. This traps the fluid in the brakes holding the rotors stationary.

Depressing the pedals further releases the pedal ratchet and opens the return line valve.

10) Brake Deboosters
Some aircraft brake assemblies that operate on aircraft hydraulic system pressure are not designed for such high pressure. They provide effective braking through a power brake system but require less than maximum hydraulic system pressure. To supply the lower pressure, a brake debooster cylinder is installed downstream of the control valve and anti-skid valve. The debooster reduces all pressure from the control valve to within the working range of the brake assembly.

11) Anti-Skid
Large aircraft with power brakes require anti-skid systems. It is not possible to immediately ascertain in the flight deck when a wheel stops rotating and begins to skid, especially in aircraft with multiple-wheel main landing gear assemblies. A skid not corrected can quickly lead to a tire blowout, possible damage to the aircraft, and control of the aircraft may be lost. System Operation The anti-skid system not only detects wheel skid, it also detects when wheel skid is imminent. It automatically relieves pressure to the brake pistons of the wheel in question by momentarily connecting the pressurized brake fluid area to the hydraulic system return line.

This allows the wheel to rotate and avoid a skid. Lower pressure is then maintained to the brake at a level that slows the wheel without causing it to skid. Maximum braking efficiency exists when the wheels are decelerating at a maximum rate but are not skidding. If a wheel decelerates too fast, it is an indication that the brakes are about to lock and cause a skid. To ensure that this does not happen, each wheel is monitored for a deceleration rate faster.


Source:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wpRNg2W85U 

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