Ecological Factors that Limit the Aircraft Performance - اسأل الطيار ask pilot

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Wednesday, October 28, 2020

Ecological Factors that Limit the Aircraft Performance

Ecological Factors that Limit the Aircraft Performance


The most common ecological factors that have greatest influence on aircraft performance are:

1) Fuel Dumping : (Release fuel before landing to reduce aircraft mass)

Fuel dumping is common on both large commercial airliners and military planes.
Many aircraft require the ability to dump fuel because of landing weight restrictions imposed by the manufacturers (MLW). In other situations, an aircraft may be at an acceptable landing weight but forced to make an emergency landing at a runway that is too short (LDR<LDA). It may be necessary to dump fuel to reduce the aircraft weight low enough in order to make a safe landing on a shorter field. A typical fuel dumping system employs a series of pumps and valves to eject fuel from the aircraft's wingtips.

**Regulations set up by FAA for fuel dumping

Fuel can only be dumped above a minimum altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m), to improve its
evaporation. Dumping aircraft must be separated from other air traffic by at least 5 miles (8 km). Pilot should report to ATC that he/she needs to dump fuel in order to get an aircraft down to its maximum landing mass. ATC then should guide the pilot to ensure that the aircraft receives the required separation during the process, and should divert the plane away from areas of heavy traffic.

2) Noise abatement procedures: (Action that minimizes impact of aircraft noise)

Noise abatement (NA) is an action that minimizes impact of noise at an airport. Most airports that are located very close to the community have a number of regulations in place designed to reduce noise levels. These regulations include:

a) Aircraft may not fly at certain areas Use or disuse of certain runways.
b) Limiting the number of departures and arrivals per runway.
c) Limit the maximum thrust allowed when flying over certain areas.
d) Forbidden use of reverse thrust at night on some airports.

Even, noise abatement procedures could minimize noise effect, it however gives several disadvantages to airlines and airports. Operational restrictions may limit an airport’s capacity, further contributing to airport congestion and travel delays, and to higher airline operating costs.

3) Bird Strikes: (Birds collide with aircraft and cause serious damage)

Bird strikes are a collision between an airborne animal (bird) with an aircraft. Bird strikes especially near the airport have the big potential to cause serious aircraft damage and loss of human life. Every year there are many aviation accidents reported caused by bird strikes. Because of this, the FAA directs any related airport to concern on bird hazard management .Under bird hazard management, some prohibited areas The most common reason for designating such areas is to prevent bird strikes. Usually the departure and arrival routes may be tailored to avoid areas of high bird activity, but most regulations governing the hazard of bird strikes are concerned with techniques to be implemented to discourage birds from flying in areas around the airport, rather than restricting air traffic.

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