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الأحد، 12 يوليو 2020

Threat and Error Management (TEM Model)

Threat and Error Management (TEM Model)


The Threat and Error Management (TEM) model is a conceptual framework. It was developed to help understand, and explain, the interaction between safety and human performance, within an operational context. It does this by mapping the inter-relationship between the parts within the safety system. The model captures aspects of these relationships that explain both human and system performance from a safety perspective.

Threat and Error Management (TEM Model)
This model is used extensively to support safety management systems (SMS) such as Crew Resource Management (CRM) training and as a diagnostic application in Line Operations Safety Audits.
Although most of the discussion in this document uses aviation examples, the TEM Model explains relationships that are present in any complex organizational domain.
The TEM Model proposes an error management process that is influenced by two factors:
1. Threats - influences that are beyond the direct control of the people performing the work tasks and
2. Threat Management strategies and countermeasures - The actions of those performing operational tasks used to manage safety.
Threats are events or conditions that exist within the operational environment and attack the safety performance of the crew.
The two forms of threat described in the model are:
(a) Latent Threat – Not obvious to the flight crew and generally hidden within the system.
(b) - Overt Threats – Are present on the day and are either anticipated or unexpected by the crew.
**NOTE
The importance of TEM model is to maintain safety margins by training pilots and flight crews to detect and respond to events that are likely to cause damage (threats) as well as mistakes that are most likely to be made (errors) during flight operations.


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