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الثلاثاء، 7 يوليو 2020

What is Pitot-Static pressure?

What is Pitot-Static pressure?

A pitot-static system is a system of pressure-sensitive instruments that is most often used in aviation to determine an aircraft’s airspeed, Mach number, altitude, and altitude trend. A pitot-static system generally consists of a pitot tube, a static port, and the pitot-static instruments. Other instruments that might be connected are air data computers, flight data recorders, altitude encoders, cabin pressurization controllers, and various airspeed switches. Errors in pitot-static system readings can be extremely dangerous as the information obtained from the pitot static system, such as altitude, is potentially safety-critical. Several commercial airline disasters have been traced to a failure of the pitot-static system.

Pitot-static pressure

The pitot-static system of instruments uses the principle of air pressure gradient. It works by measuring pressures or pressure differences and using these values to assess the speed and altitude. These pressures can be measured either from the static port (static pressure) or the pitot tube (pitot pressure). The static pressure is used in all measurements, while the pitot pressure is used only to determine airspeed.

Pitot pressure

The pitot pressure is obtained from the pitot tube. The pitot pressure is a measure of ram air pressure (the air pressure created by vehicle motion or the air ramming into the tube), which, under ideal conditions, is equal to stagnation pressure, also called total pressure. The pitot tube is most often located on the wing or front section of an aircraft, facing forward, where its opening is exposed to the relative wind. By situating the pitot tube in such a location, the ram air pressure is more accurately measured since it will be less distorted by the aircraft’s structure. When airspeed increases, the ram air pressure is increased, which can be translated by the airspeed indicator.

Static pressure

The static pressure is obtained through a static port. The static port is most often a flush-mounted hole on the fuselage of an aircraft, and is located where it can access the air flow in a relatively undisturbed area. Some aircraft may have a single static port, while others may have more than one. In situations where an aircraft has more than one static port, there is usually one located on each side of the fuselage. With this positioning, an average pressure can be taken, which allows for more accurate readings in specific flight situations. An alternative static port may be located inside the cabin of the aircraft as a backup for when the external static port(s) are blocked. A pitot-static tube effectively integrates the static ports into the pitot probe. It incorporates a second coaxial tube (or tubes) with pressure sampling holes on the sides of the probe, outside the direct airflow, to measure the static pressure. When the aircraft climbs, static pressure will decrease.

Multiple pressure

Some pitot-static systems incorporate single probes that contain multiple pressure-transmitting ports that allow for the sensing of air pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip data. Depending on the design, such air data probes may be referred to as 5-hole or 7-hole air data probes. Differential pressure sensing techniques can be used to produce angle of attack and angle of sideslip indications.

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